Fighting a zoning decision generally occurs through the filing of a G.L. c. 40A, § 17 appeal in Land Court or Superior Court. Such, an appeal, however, many only be filed by a “person aggrieved.”
On this important topic, the Supreme Judicial Court issued its long awaited decision in Murchison v. Zoning Board of Appeals of Sherborn, a decision that overruled a prior appellate decision on this same matter.
This case is the only time I’ve seen an appellate court announce the outcome of a decision months before issuing a written decision, which underscores the importance of this area of law. The full decision is below.
Overview of Fighting a Zoning Decision
Fighting a zoning decision from a town or city zoning board (usually a Zoning Board of Appeals or Planning Board) is done through a civil court action. A party must file such an appeal twenty days after the decision has been filed in the office of the city or town clerk. After doing so, the party who is the applicant seeking zoning relief has the burden of proving their case.
This is a critical point for fighting a zoning decision. A party who appeals a zoning decision forces the other party to prove its right to zoning relief. This is in contrast to most other civil lawsuits, where the party filing the case has the burden of proof.
Who Has the Right to Appeal a Zoning Decision?
Appealing a zoning decision requires more than simply filing a court case. The law only allows a “person aggrieved” to pursue such a case. In other words, the party must have some real stake in the case outcome (known in legal terms as standing).
A homeowner trying to appeal a zoning decision for a parcel of property on the other side of town would most certainly not be considered a “person aggrieved.” This inquiry, however, gets tricky when it concerns zoning disputes among neighbors and those living near the property.
Murchison determined that an abutter of a property (who is located a specific distance from the property) is not automatically a “person aggrieved.” Rather, a person pursuing a zoning appeal must make a more detailed showing of standing, including a claim of harm from the zoning relief.
Standing is a mandatory requirement for a zoning appeal. If a party cannot demonstrate that they are a “person aggrieved,” the case is over.
For this reason, it is critical to have an experienced attorney help you in preparing such a case. If you are involved in a zoning matter, contact me for a consultation.Murchinson