Massachusetts zoning law imposes an array of restrictions on the right to use one’s property. The law permits a party to seek an exception (known as a variance) if a party believes they have unique circumstances excusing them from fulfilling the zoning requirement.
A variance, however, is not the only grounds for seeking relief from zoning restrictions. Massachusetts law expressly provides a procedure for challenging a zoning requirement if the property owner believes the requirement is arbitrary and unreasonable or substantially unrelated to the public health, safety, morals, or general welfare.
Challenging a Zoning Requirement in Massachusetts
Challenging a zoning requirement requires a property owner to file a petition in Land Court against the city or town to determine the zoning requirement’s validity. This law, G.L. c. 240, § 14A, is similar to a request for a declaratory judgment, where a court is authorized to make binding orders on actual controversies. Often, a party challenging a zoning requirement will bring an action under G.L. c. 240, § 14A and seek a declaratory judgment.
Limited Requirements for Challenging a Zoning Requirement
A critical part of a G.L. c. 240, § 14A petition is that a landowner has limited prerequisites for challenging a zoning requirement. The homeowner does not need to have applied for a building permit or have obtained any architect plans for the proposed work. This is important because it avoids requiring a property owner to assume these high costs before determining whether it has to comply with the zoning requirement.
Without this exclusion, a homeowner would seemingly have to substantially commit to the project before determining the zoning requirement’s validity, which would seemingly defeat this law’s entire purpose: allowing such a determination before the project’s start.
Practical Implications for Challenging a Zoning Requirement
A property owner must prove that the zoning requirement is arbitrary and unreasonable, or substantially unrelated to the public health, safety, morals, or general welfare. This is no easy task: courts have often given deference to towns and cities in their land-use restrictions, and a landowner must make a solid case against the zoning requirement’s validity.
The Court, importantly, will not simply decide whether the requirement is good public policy. Rather, the Court will look at whether the requirement has no basis for being a zoning restriction. With this in mind, a successful G.L. c. 240, § 14A petition needs to make this case and not merely ask the Court to second guess the city or town’s law-making process.
If you need assistance with challenging a zoning requirement in Massachusetts, contact me for a consultation.